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Entries in exotic species (203)

Sunday
Apr032016

Contest Begins in Florida to Catch, Report, and Remove Nonnative Fish

Go fishing to win prizes, as well as document and remove nonnative freshwater fish, such as the Mayan cichlid shown above, from Florida’s waters.

You can do that in the second statewide Nonnative Fish Catch, Click and Report Contest, coordinated by the Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) and partners. The 2016 contest kicked off  on April 1 and runs until midnight on April 30.  

Participating is easy: Provide a photo, enter detailed catch location or GPS coordinates, and report nonnative freshwater fish catches  here. They also can be reported by downloading the IveGot1 app, by calling 888-IVE-GOT1 (888-483-4681), or by posting photos and catch data to your Instagram account.   

 “Florida is home to at least 34 species of reproducing exotic fish and new species continue to be found, which can impact native fish communities,” said FWC biologist Kelly Gestring. “By removing and reporting nonnative fish, anglers help manage populations of exotic species and help conserve our state’s precious natural resources.”

The contest is part of a continuing effort to raise awareness of nonnative fish species and encourage anglers to target nonnative fish for consumption by the FWC and partners, including the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Florida Invasive Species Partnership, University of Georgia and Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area. Partners plan to hold the event annually with the help of anglers acting as citizen scientists.

For more information about the contest, go here.

 More information on nonnative freshwater fish and other exotic species is here.

Thursday
Jan212016

Not All Hunters, Anglers Are Conservationists. Are You?

As anglers and hunters, we like to pat ourselves on our collective back about what great conservationists we are. We do that  because state fish and wildlife management is funded primarily by license fees and the excise taxes that we pay on the fishing and hunting equipment we buy. Those hundreds of millions of dollars annually benefit all species, not just those we like to catch and hunt.

But contributing to conservation is not the same as being a conservationist.

That realization came to me recently when I saw a post from the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation (RMEF) on its Facebook page, thanking those whose comments "led to a vote to oppose the release of wolves in Colorado."

I also saw other comments that leave no doubt that many hunters want the elk for themselves.  Here's just one: "I hate wolves and I hate the people who love them, too."

Additionally, I saw  the above poster, explaining "why hunting is conservation."

No it's not. Hunters and anglers contribute to conservation. And, yes, some of them are conservationists, including me. I write about my conservation lifestyle in "I Am a Steward," an essay in Why We Fish.

Also, elk, bison, whitetail, and turkey all are thriving once again because of financial contributions made by hunters, through license fees, excise taxes, and great organizations like RMEF and the National Wild Turkey Federation.

But many hunters are not conservationists. They are hunters. Period. And, like selfish children, they don't want to share.

That's what prompted me to leave this comment on the RMEF Facebook page:

"RMEF has done great things to bring back the elk, and I am grateful for that. But I do wonder how large the elk population was long before 1907, before greedy commercial hunters nearly wiped them out, along with bison and wolves.

"And I am troubled by the anti-wolf rhetoric here. Those who want the elk back but not the wolves are not conservationists. Rather, they are not a whole lot different than those commercial hunters who didn't want to share either. They wanted all the elk for themselves.

"Wolves are just as much a part of the wilderness as elk and to deny them that place is not conservation. It's game management for the benefit of hunters, who, like other predator species, do not want competition.

"With proper management, we can have both species and a wilderness that once again is truly wild."

I don't want to leave anglers out of this sermon either.  Yes, many practice catch-and-release, and, most times, that's good conservation. But for some, it also leads to an out-of-sight, out-of-mind mentality. In other words, the logic goes, "If the fish swims away, then I've done my part."

Never mind that far too many fish die of delayed mortality because of mistreatment prior to release.

And whether you hunt or fish, you should leave the places you frequent better than how you found them if you call yourself a conservationist. Pack out not just your own trash, but that left behind by others.

Respect the land and water, as well as all of the fish and animals that live there, recognizing that each is a integral part of the natural system. Asian carp, Burmese pythons, and other harmful exotic species are notable exceptions. Introduced into  systems with no natural limits on their numbers, they destroy the balance, just as commercial hunters did more than a century ago.

Thursday
Jan142016

Giant Salvinia Found at Texas' Lake Fork

A noxious invasive plant that has plagued Louisiana and Texas waters for more than a decade finally has found its way to Lake Fork, the Lone Star State's No.1 trophy bass lake. Possibly giant salvinia was brought in accidentally by boat or trailer from Toledo Bend, Sam Rayburn, or Caddo.

"We do everything we can within the limits of manpower and budget that we have to work with," said Larry Hodge, spokesman for Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD). "The problem is that everybody who has a boat is a potential vector."

"We've found infestations like this on other reservoirs  in East Texas and have gone in and physically removed the plants, all that we can find," he added. "If you catch it early, sometimes you can get rid of it, at least temporarily."

On Nov. 18 in Chaney Branch, agency biologists confirmed the presence of this fast-growing, free-floating fern that can double its coverage in a week, as it blocks access and displaces native plants, which can't grow under its dense mats. 

"The infestation appears to be confined to this branch and a another small cove west of the dam and occupies an estimated 3.25 acres," TPWD said. "Judging by the distribution and age of the plants, it appears it has been in place for several months."

The Sabine River Authority (SRA) immediately close boat ramps at Chaney Point South and Secret Haven to reduce the risk of spreading the plant.   It also checked at bridge crossings and along shorelines for additional plants.

Additionally, SRA and TPWD crews have physically removed plants, as well as placed about 1,100 feet of floating boom across the creek, in hopes of containing the infestation within the 90-acre cove.

TPWD also plans to conduct a chemical treatment, using glyphosate. "All efforts will be made to protect beneficial plants, while focusing on killing the invasive giant salvinia," the agency said, adding that it will continue to look for the plant in other areas of the lake.

"We've had a lot of rain and high water this year and a lot of wind," said biologist Kevin Storey. " I suspect this will affect Lake Fork for years."

Sunday
Dec202015

Noise Could Be Way to Slow Spread of Silver Carp

Anglers and other boaters already know that silver carp don't like noise, and arguably that's not a good thing. That's because huge schools of these exotic fish go airborne as they flee the sounds of outboard engines, often damaging boaters and injuring people.

But this aversion to noise also could provide a silver lining in the quest to slow the spread of silver carp, according to scientists with the University of Minnesota-Duluth (UMD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).    

“Our complex noise findings suggest that certain sounds could be used to divert silver carp away from strategic points on waterways or herd them into nets,” said Brooke Vetter, a UMD researcher and graduate student.

After placing speakers at the ends of outdoor concrete ponds, scientists tested carp response to pure sounds, which resemble a dial tone, and more complex noises. The fish quickly adjusted to the pure tones, never swimming away more than two consecutive times. But they continuously fled the more complex sounds.

Now researchers are testing complex noise as a way to control silver carp in the Illinois River.

“Silver carp threaten many waterways in the Great Lakes basin by competing with native species,” said USGS's Mark Gaikowski. “Understanding silver carp behavior is critical for determining effective techniques to minimize the ecological and economic damage of this invasive species."

Wednesday
Nov042015

Asian Carp Already Damaging Fisheries

Leaping silver carp on Illinois River. Photo by Nerissa McClelland, Illinois Department of Natural ResourcesMost bass anglers realize that Asian carp pose a threat to the nation's sport fisheries. But they know that because of what they have read and heard, not because of what they've seen and experienced. For them, the danger is theoretical, especially since most of the focus has been on possible consequences to the Great Lakes  if/when these large and prolific exotics gain entrance there.

Bighead and silver carp, however, already are damaging bass fisheries and showing up in frightening numbers in others. In southern Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the invasion has begun and casualties are mounting.

"Once you needed 12 to 20 pounds to win a tournament on the Kaskaskia (Mississippi River tributary south of St. Louis)," said Rick Brynes, who runs the Angler's Choice Tournament Trail. "But now that's gone, and we're starting to see the same thing on the Smithland Pool (Ohio River). During the past three to four years, the weights have dropped dramatically.

"It's a crisis, and not enough anglers see it," added the Illinois fisherman who has been pressing officials and agencies for action and sounding the alarm to everyone who will listen. "We're going to lose our fisheries. It's just going to take longer in some places than others."

Juvenile Asian carp. Photo by Ben DuncanIn Kentucky, guide Jim Perry said that "zillions" of young-of-the-year carp are showing up along the shorelines below both Kentucky and Barkley dams. "Plus there are schools of them above those dams all around the intakes, where the water goes down to the generators," he added.

Steve McCadams, another guide, added crappie anglers are worried about carp eating up all of the zooplankton and algae that young-of-the-year typically feed on. "Our overall crappie fishery has experienced some declines the last few years as to catch rates and recruitment," he said.

Kentucky fisheries chief Ron Brooks pointed out that little data exists regarding the impacts of Asian carp on native species.  "We have ancillary information concerning their effect on paddlefish," he said, adding that Illinois has evidence of harmful impacts to buffalo, and pelagic sport fish, such as sauger, in the Illinois River.

"We also are seeing fewer shad and skipjack in our tailwaters in western Kentucky," the fisheries chief said. "The real problem with measuring impacts of Asian carp in fertile waters is that they may be very subtle until a certain point of density is reached when a system is finally depleted, or nearly depleted, of algal and invertebrate forage. We are hoping to avoid reaching that threshold."

Arguably thresholds already have been reached on portions of the Missouri and Illinois Rivers, where net sampling has revealed Asian carp now comprise more than 95 percent of the biomass. In other words, those waters contain less than 5 percent native species by weight. Notorious for leaping when frightened, the silver carp also has made boating hazardous in these places, especially in the Illinois River below Peoria.

Riverine fish in their native China, silver and bighead carp spread in every direction after escaping Mississippi Delta aquaculture facilities because of flooding during the 1970s. Prolific, voracious, and fast-growing, they overwhelmed those Midwest waters first. They did so by gobbling up phytoplankton and zooplankton, which is critical forage not just for shad, paddlefish, and buffalo, but for fry of sport fish, including crappie and bass.

"Between 1994 and 1997 commercial catches of bighead carp in the Mississippi River increased from 5.5 tons to 55 tons," reported the Tennessee Wildlife Federation. "Today, commercial fishers in the Illinois River regularly catch up to 25,000 pounds of bighead and silver carp per day.

Asian carp harvested from Kentucky Lake. Photo by Jim PerryAnd while most attention was focused on the fear that the invaders might migrate into the Great Lakes via a manmade connection between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River, they quietly pushed east into the Ohio. That gave them entrance to the Tennessee River and Kentucky Lake, as well as Lake Barkley and the Cumberland system. Now, their numbers are exploding in those reservoirs, even as they have been found as far up the Cumberland as Old Hickory and as far up the Tennessee as Watts Bar.

"Personally, I think it's too late to fully save the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. The quantity of carp in both those rivers is unimaginable, although, sustained fishing does help," said Ben Duncan, a commercial fisherman, as well as high school mathematics teacher. "If we don't start soon, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers will soon follow."

Duncan added that he already sees how native fish have changed their behavior because of the carp invasion. "I think it's even influenced the crappie population and spawn on Kentucky Lake," he said. "Commercially, we catch way fewer fish in the bays than we did seven to eight years ago, especially buffalo, a fish that competes with Asians for food."         

Even more concerning, they are growing to sizes never before seen, even in their native China. Earlier this year, Bill Shroeder foul-hooked and landed a 106-pound silver carp in Kentucky Lake. Fisheries experts say the maximum weight for that species should be about 60 pounds.

What's being done to protect sport fisheries in these imperiled waters? Not enough, stressed Byrnes, who has pressed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other agencies to explain why they are not more aggressively exploring and implementing strategies to manage Asian carp.

"Things could be done to eradicate them that are not being done," he said, adding that lack of funding seems a contributing factor.

"We're 25 years into this, and we need some action now," the Illinois angler said. "Asian carp can take over and change our fisheries forever."

Science

While resource agencies aren't responding to the Asian carp threat as quickly as some would like, they are working on control methods, according to Michael Hoff with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

"It is unlikely, in my experience, that any technology will be the end all," he said. "That is why we, in the U.S. agencies, are researching and developing a variety of containment and control technologies that are feasible now, and may be implemented within the next few years."

Any strategies, he added, must take into account "a variety of scientific, social, political, and environmental constraints."

Genetic modification is one option. It would require stocking hundreds of thousands of altered carp to breed with the existing population to cause reproductive failure, reduced fertility, or ineffective recruitment. But concerns about  the effects of genetically modified animals on the environment and humans makes this option less likely. Variations that do not require modification of the nuclear genome also are being explored, but they likely would work only where densities are low.

Distribution of "microparticles" that only silver and bighead carp would eat seems a more likely strategy.

"Those microparticles are being developed to kill only Asian carp," Hoff said. "I am hopeful that the microparticle technology will be approved for use within the next several years."

Photo by Nerissa McClelland

Harvest

As research continues on methods to control Asian carp populations, Kentucky and Tennessee have followed the lead of Illinois in promoting commercial harvest. The mild-flavored fish is highly prized for food in Asian, and slowly is growing in popularity in the United States. Additionally, meal made from carp can be used in livestock food, as well as fertilizers.

Kentucky fisheries chief Ron Brooks said that Riverine Fisheries International, LLC has retrofitted a salmon processing ship to accommodate carp and now is towing it to his state from New Orleans. "The owner has a very aggressive plan of attack concerning fishing the carp and expects to eventually haul in about 150,000 pounds of Asian carp daily," he said, adding that he knows of at least two other processors.

"The good thing about the larger companies is their interest in Asian carp in Kentucky and Barkley Lakes," Brooks added. "The carp grow faster and are more robust in those reservoirs than they are in the rivers. They pose immediate threats not only to the fisheries, but boaters as well."

Tennessee, meanwhile has no major processors as of yet, but the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) "proposes to use commercial fishing methods to remove large volumes of bighead and silver carp in established populations such as Kentucky, Barkley, and Cheatham Lakes."

First, a few carp will be caught and then tagged.

"Silver carp tend to stay in large groups so biologists could track the tagged fish to larger groups of silver carp," it said. "Biologists or commercial fishermen could then set nets in areas of known silver carp concentrations and remove them."

(This article appeared originally in B.A.S.S. Times.)