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Entries in grass carp (20)

Wednesday
May282014

How About Hippos?

If you think that we’ve made a mess of our lands and waters through intentional and unintentional import of exotic plants and animals, you are correct. For example, we now spend billions of dollars annually to control and mitigate the damage done by just four recently introduced species: bighead carp, silver carp, quagga mussel, and zebra mussel.

And in attempts to minimize problems, the government often has made them worse. During the 1940s, the state of Louisiana touted the South American nutria as a way to control water hyacinth, a fast-growing exotic that was crowding out native vegetation in wetlands. Today, the nutria is eating away those same wetlands, contributing to saltwater intrusion and coastal erosion.

In the early 1960s, the states of Alabama and Arkansas allowed import of grass carp to control aquatic vegetation in aquaculture ponds. By 1970, escapees had established populations in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Today, these troublesome grazers are established in at least nine states and have been sighted in more than 40. Ask just about any bass angler, and he will tell you that the grass carp is public enemy No. 1.

And speaking of carp, we have the federal government to thank for one of the worst management decisions ever in regard to our fisheries. In 1877, the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries began intensively cultivating and stocking common carp. In fairness, it was prompted to do so both by public pressure and by overharvest of native fish stocks. By the turn of the century, however, it already was regarded as a nuisance.

“Moreover, their rapid spread appeared to threaten both water quality and native species, as commissioners nationwide noted a deterioration of formerly clear and fertile lakes and waterways upon the arrival of carp,” says the National Park Service.

But you don’t know the half of it. Actually, things could be worse. Much worse. Instead of nutria eating away those Louisiana wetlands, we could have hippos. And who’s to say that these massive “water horses” which can weigh up to 4 tons and eat up to 100 pounds of vegetation a day, wouldn’t have spread east, west, and north?

They are “relatively tolerant of cold conditions,” says the Glen Oak Zoo, which also points out that “many individuals live to 40 years.”

Oh yeah, they also are generally believed to have killed more people in their native Africa than another animal, including lions and crocodiles.

All things considered, I’ll take the nutria, thank you. It tops out at about 12 pounds and is not as likely to charge me at the launch ramp.

But in 1910, Frederick Russell Burnham, a famed American scout and world adventurer, proposed replacing our nation’s depleted wildlife population --- we had hunted deer, turkey, and buffalo nearly to extinction --- with animals that he had encountered in southern Africa.

His proposal lined up nicely with the search for a solution to the growing problem of water hyacinths in Louisiana waters, as well as America’s need for more meat. Writing about this little known piece of American history, Jon Mooallem in American Hippopotamus, says that Rep. of Robert Foligny of New Iberia “liked to plug up problems with big solutions.”

Thus, Foligny introduced H.R. 23261, also known as the “Hippo Bill,” to “appropriate $250,000 for the importation of useful new animals into the United States.” The Washington Post assured readers that they would see shipments of hippos within a few years.

Fortunately for all us, a boatload of hippos never docked in New Orleans. But it wasn’t because of the unexpected discovery of good judgment in Congress. Rather, one representative said that the beasts should not be introduced because unscrupulous hunters would sneak onto the farms and hunt them for trophies.

Yeah, that’s the reason not to import aggressive animals that boast 20-inch teeth and can run at speeds of more than 20 miles per hour.

What turned the tide, though, was that the Department of Agriculture decided to transform swamps and other undeveloped areas into agricultural land to grow more beef cattle.

Thank goodness. Otherwise, we might we watching “Hippo Die-Nasty” instead of “Duck Dynasty” on television.

(This column was published originally in B.A.S.S. Times.)

Wednesday
Mar262014

Third Carp Species Also Threatens Great Lakes

Activist Angler caught this 30-pound-plus grass carp in a lake that has been damaged by illegal stocking of this exotic species. Photo by Robert Montgomery.

When people talk about Asian carp threatening the Great Lakes and its fisheries, they typically are referring to bighead and silver.

But a third species also potentially could damage this vast freshwater ecosystem if it becomes established in substantial numbers.

The grass carp was introduced into U.S. waters about 50 years ago, with the intent of using it to manage invasive aquatic vegetation. It has done its job--- and then some. Too often it has obliterated all vegetation in a water body, including beneficial native plants.

Additionally, it has escaped and established wild populations, as did the bighead and silver. Today the grass carp is believed to be in at least 45 states.

And now this invader poses danger for the Great Lakes.

Researchers recently documented that grass carp have spawned in the Great Lakes, specifically in Ohio’s Sandusky River, a tributary of Lake Erie. They also point out that 45 of them were caught in the Great Lakes between 2007-2012. That’s not a lot, but it’s 45 too many, especially since about half of those were capable of reproducing, meaning that an established population might already exist.

That does not bode well for bass, pike, and other inshore species that thrive in and around aquatic vegetation.

Read more here.

By the way, I have personal experience with grass carp. Years ago, ignorant property owners illegally stocked grass carp in the little lake behind my house because, they said, “they filter the water and improve the water quality.”  They did so, even though the lake contained little, if any, aquatic vegetation.

Somehow, the carp have survived and today some of them weigh 30 pounds or more. They’re the equivalent of big aquatic cows, degrading water quality, not improving it, as their wastes feed alga blooms during summer.

Also, hundreds of pounds of carp prevent growth of hundreds of pounds of bass, bluegill, and catfish. Like a farm field, a lake can sustain just so much biomass. 

Tuesday
Mar042014

Tourney Raises Funds for Conroe Restoration

During the past two years, the Lake Conroe Big Bass Extravaganza, sponsored by Legend Boats, has raised $6,000 for habitat restoration on this Texas fishery. Most of the funds will be directed toward the PVC habitat structure program, according to Derek Taylor, conservation director of the Seven Coves Bass Club (SCBC).

“Legend had heard of our conservation efforts on Lake Conroe at the 2010 Toyota Texas Bass Classic,” Taylor said. “They contacted us about assisting with the development of a big bass tournament at Lake Conroe.

“We were both humbled and honored that our dedicated conservation work was being noticed nationally in the fishing industry, and that a great company like Legend Boats wanted to work with us.”

Plagued with infestations of exotic vegetation and then an overpopulation of grass carp, Conroe suffered degraded habitat and a declining bass fishery for years. Then Seven Coves started to work, partnering with a variety of local, state, and national entities to restrict invasive plants and restore the fishery. Much of the effort has been directed at raising and planting beneficial native vegetation.

“This project benefits the environment by reducing harmful exotic vegetation in a sustainable manner, increasing sustainable native habitat for fish and other wildlife, sequestering harmful nutrients, reducing bank erosion, and stabilizing bottom sediments,” explained Mark Webb, a Texas Parks and Wildlife fisheries biologist.

During the second extravaganza this past April, Grant Rogers caught a 9.86-pound largemouth to win a custom Legend bass boat, as well as a $400 hourly prize.

Four prizes were awarded each hour, from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. during the two-day event.

“While many volunteered to work the 130-angler event, SCBC members who fished the event also took home 13 checks for more than $3,800,” Taylor said.

(This article appeared originally in B.A.S.S. Times.)

Tuesday
Sep172013

Duke Energy Develops Effective Strategy for Hydrilla Control

For years, resource managers have struggled to find a cost-effective and efficient way to control hydrilla. Mass application of herbicide can be cost prohibitive, as well as unpopular with anglers, environmentalists, and lakefront property owners. Grass carp, meanwhile, need years to bring the fast-growing exotic plant under control, unless they are stocked at exceptionally high rates, which also can be unpopular and expensive.

But Duke Energy Corporation has developed an effective management strategy for five of its Piedmont reservoirs that incorporates moderate use of both herbicides and carp. This reduces cost, as well as minimizes the likelihood of the adverse effects on fisheries that often accompany heavy stocking of grass carp.

This one-two punch, however, is not the sole reason for success, according to Ken Manuel, Duke’s reservoir aquatic plant manager.

“Early detection and rapid response is critical,” he said. “The plants grow so fast that you’re quickly past just a small infestation.

“Hydrilla grows faster than you think,” Manuel added. “It’s not just an inch a day. A plan can grow multiple feet per day from all of its growth tips.”

And too often, it’s spreading undetected. “Especially in the East, the states, which manage the fisheries and the water quality, rely on interested individuals to tell them about invasive plants,” the scientist said.

By contrast, Duke Energy’s mosquito control teams aren’t just controlling blood-sucking insects while they are on the water full-time for six months annually. “They are constantly looking for hydrilla and other invasive plants so that we can act quickly,” Manuel said.

Once hydrilla is confirmed, it is treated with herbicide. Sometimes, that is enough. More often it is not. That being the case, stocking of triploid grass carp follows, at a rate of 20 per acre of surface infestation.

The herbicide reduces the plant’s biomass, while carp graze on what sprouts from the surviving tubers. “If you have 1,000 acres of hydrilla, you have 1,000 acres until the tuber bank is exhausted,” said the scientist.

Additional “maintenance” stockings at a rate of 1 per 8 acres of the reservoir might follow for 8 to 10 years. 

(This article appeared orginally in B.A.S.S. Times.)

Monday
Sep102012

B.A.S.S. Powerful Force for Conservation

 

New York's Paul Hudson empties line recycling bin at launch site.

If people know about B.A.S.S. at all, what they usually know is that it’s a tournament fishing organization. If they are anglers, they might also be aware that its founder, Ray Scott, popularized catch-and-release, a conservation practice now utilized worldwide among sports fishermen.

But B.A.S.S. is much more than that. Through its National Conservation Director (Noreen Clough) and through its state B.A.S.S. Federation Nation members, it is a powerful force for stewardship and protection of angler rights.

The director works mostly behind the scenes, partnering with groups such as the American Sport Fishing Association and the Congressional Sportsmen’s Foundation to present a united front for anglers. She also provides guidance for state and club conservation directors, all of whom are volunteers.

State chapters and clubs, meanwhile are the conservation backbone of B.A.S.S. and do much great work to protect and enhance fisheries. For the most part, it’s work that goes unrecognized.

Here’s what 1,954 B.A.S.S. volunteers did through 12,886 hours of effort during 2011:

  • 10 tons of trash removed
  • 1,662 artificial habitats placed
  • 15 miles of roadways cleaned
  • $505,700 raised for charities and conservation
  • 7,366 acres improved by habitat placement
  • 5,000 pounds of invasive grass carp removed
  • 4 tons of invasive plants removed
  • 350 water willows planted
  • 600 bass tagged

As a Life member and Senior Writer/Conservation for B.A.S.S., I’m extremely proud of my organization.