This area does not yet contain any content.
Get Updates! and Search
No RSS feeds have been linked to this section.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

Entries in Great Lakes (109)

Thursday
Aug212014

Sky Isn't Falling, But Dead Zones Are Real

The Mississippi River dead zone is overloaded with nutrients from upstream sources. This photo shows the color change between the hypoxic (brown) and oxygen-rich (blue) waters. Photo courtesy of NOAA.

Climate change occurs naturally. It always has, and it always will vary from day to day, week to week, season to season, year to year, decade to decade, and century to century. Possibly humans play a role in that change in some way, but no verifiable evidence supports that. Even if it did, we, as one nation, could do little to nothing about it because our contribution is miniscule compared to what’s happening in China, India, and the rest of the world.

The billions of dollars wasted on this sky-is-falling hysteria could be far better spent on providing food and clean water to the millions who need it.

By contrast, dead zones pose legitimate threats to our fisheries and oceans and could be minimized if we changed our ways.

LiveScience.com reports the following:

“Agricultural practices are the biggest culprit for dead zones in the United States and Europe. Rains wash excess fertilizer from farms into interior waterways, which eventually empty into the ocean. At the mouths of rivers, such as the Mississippi, the glut of phosphorous and nitrogen intended for human crops instead feeds marine phytoplankton.

“A phytoplanktonic surge leads to a boom in bacteria, which feed on the plankton and consume oxygen as part of their respiration. That leaves very little dissolved oxygen in the subsurface waters. Without oxygen, most marine life cannot survive.”

In the United States, the most notorious dead zone occurs each summer in the Gulf of Mexico, spreading out from the mouth of the Mississippi River. This year, it consumes more than 5,000 square miles, slightly smaller than last year. On average, it is estimated to cost $82 million annually in diminished tourism and fishing yield.

More than 150 dead zones have been identified in this country, most of them along the coasts. A few occur inland, notably the Great Lakes.

Some of them have been cleaned up through improved management of agricultural runoff and sewage. But as fertilizer and factory farming both increase, LiveScience.com warns, “the United States is creating dead zones faster than nature can recover.”

More than 400 dead zones have been identified worldwide, covering about 1 percent of the area along continental shelves.  But likely many more than that exist, since portions of Africa, South America, and Asia have yet to be studied.

Thursday
Apr032014

Great Lakes Ice Good for Water Levels, Fisheries, But Could Mean Loss of Wetlands

NOAA photo collage

By mid February, ice coverage of the Great Lakes was at 87.3 percent, as scientists predicted that it would reach record proportions--- more than 94.7 percent--- before the spring thaw.

That can be bad for commercial navigation. But in general, the ice is good for the lakes and their fisheries.

“When you have more ice formation, you have less direct contact with the atmosphere, less opportunity for evaporation and that keeps the water levels up, said Alan Steinman of the Annis Water Resources Institute.

For years now, the lakes have suffered from low water, with Lake Michigan falling to record lows just last year. More water retained will mean more shoreline habitat later.

Yet that also could mean the loss of wetlands gained during the low-water years. From 2004 to 2009, wetlands increased by 13,610 acres in the eight-state Great Lakes region, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

That was the only portion of the country to show an increase, as the rest of the nation’s coastal wetlands shrank by 360,720 acres.

Before ice coverage started reaching record proportions, Donald Uzarski of the Institute of Great Lakes Research explained how the increase occurred.

“As the shoreline moves away from the upland, the wetland essentially follows it,” he said.

“Usually, the amount of wetlands stays the same over the years as water levels rise and fall because wetlands move where the shoreline is. But we’re seeing low levels that have rarely happened in the past.”

Going into spring, water levels likely will be higher than they would have been following a mild winter, thanks to that ice coverage. It increased from 77 to 87.3 percent during the second week of February and was forecast to reach the highest percentage since records started being kept in 1973. Coverage of 94.7 percent was recorded on Feb. 19, 1979.

By Feb. 12, Lake Superior, the most northern of the lakes, was at 95.3 percent coverage. It last was 100 percent ice covered in 1996.

Climate for Lake Erie is a bit milder, but the lake also is shallow compared to its counterparts, meaning it is more likely to freeze in winter. It was at 95.9 percent, on its way to the full coverage that also occurred in 1973, 1978, 1979, and 1996.

By contrast, coverage of Lake Ontario was just 32 percent. One reason for that, scientists theorize, is that the lake doesn’t freeze as easily as the rest because it has a greater capacity for “heat storage.” In other words, it is deep, like Superior, but has far less surface area, where the heat is lost. Also, moving water from Niagara Falls helps keep ice from forming.

Tuesday
Apr012014

Invasive Species Top List of Tourism Concerns in Michigan

Invasives species, including Asian carp, rank at the top of concerns by Michigan tourism professionals.

Tourism industry professionals in Michigan were asked to “identify key issues facing and threats to the integrity of Michigan’s tourism resources.” Since Michigan is a Great Lakes state, the results are not surprising: Invasive species rank as the top threat.

The tourism folks know what they’re talking about, not only for Michigan, but for much of the rest of the country as well.

As a matter of fact, I think that they correctly have identified the top four for many of the states, and they have appropriately placed climate change and increasing the number of wind farms where they belong--- at or near the bottom.

Sadly, a good number of them have bought into the environmental left’s hatred of fracking, when no evidence supports the notion that it poses a threat to our lands and waters. In fact the former head of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Lisa Jackson, said unequivocally that her agency has found no evidence of contamination.

  • Spread of invasive species (aquatic & terrestrial) – 65.2 percent
  • Lack of/limited funding for resource protection/maintenance – 59.5 percent
  • Declining water quality of our lakes, rivers and streams – 42.7 percent
  • Declining water levels of our lakes, rivers and streams – 41.3 percent
  • Diversion of water from the Great Lakes – 39.3 percent
  • Reduction in historic preservation tax credits – 28.9 percent
  • Closure of Department of History, Arts and Libraries – 25.1 percent
  • Fracking – 24.5 percent
  • Need for better/faster adoption of technology at tourism sites – 20.8 percent
  • Under-appreciation of Native American history and culture – 20.0 percent
  • Climate change – 16.8 percent
  • Spread of infectious diseases – 8.5 percent
  • Increasing number of wind farms – 7.7 percent
Friday
Mar282014

Mapping the Invasion

This screen shot shows zebra and quagga mussel invasion as of 2006.

Nature Conservancy has produced some great interactive maps showing how invasive aquatic species have spread out across the country from their point of introduction.

Featured species include bighead and silver carp, zebra and quagga mussels, Eurasian ruffe, round goby, sea lamprey, and black carp.

Also, in late 2012, the organization released a report saying that aquatic invasive species “cost businesses and consumer in the Great Lakes region hundreds of millions of dollars annually in direct costs and even more from indirect costs related to removal, maintenance, and management of those species.

“Meanwhile, state and federal governments are currently forced to spend additional millions as they attempt to control the impacts and prevent the spread of AIS (aquatic invasive species).”

According to the report, the largest industry affected by AIS in the Great Lakes is tourism and recreation, which is responsible for employing more than 90,000 people in the region, generating $30.3 billion annually in revenue. Costs range from monitoring and controlling AIS to lost revenue from beach closings affecting hotels, restaurants and other tourism-related businesses.

Wednesday
Mar262014

Third Carp Species Also Threatens Great Lakes

Activist Angler caught this 30-pound-plus grass carp in a lake that has been damaged by illegal stocking of this exotic species. Photo by Robert Montgomery.

When people talk about Asian carp threatening the Great Lakes and its fisheries, they typically are referring to bighead and silver.

But a third species also potentially could damage this vast freshwater ecosystem if it becomes established in substantial numbers.

The grass carp was introduced into U.S. waters about 50 years ago, with the intent of using it to manage invasive aquatic vegetation. It has done its job--- and then some. Too often it has obliterated all vegetation in a water body, including beneficial native plants.

Additionally, it has escaped and established wild populations, as did the bighead and silver. Today the grass carp is believed to be in at least 45 states.

And now this invader poses danger for the Great Lakes.

Researchers recently documented that grass carp have spawned in the Great Lakes, specifically in Ohio’s Sandusky River, a tributary of Lake Erie. They also point out that 45 of them were caught in the Great Lakes between 2007-2012. That’s not a lot, but it’s 45 too many, especially since about half of those were capable of reproducing, meaning that an established population might already exist.

That does not bode well for bass, pike, and other inshore species that thrive in and around aquatic vegetation.

Read more here.

By the way, I have personal experience with grass carp. Years ago, ignorant property owners illegally stocked grass carp in the little lake behind my house because, they said, “they filter the water and improve the water quality.”  They did so, even though the lake contained little, if any, aquatic vegetation.

Somehow, the carp have survived and today some of them weigh 30 pounds or more. They’re the equivalent of big aquatic cows, degrading water quality, not improving it, as their wastes feed alga blooms during summer.

Also, hundreds of pounds of carp prevent growth of hundreds of pounds of bass, bluegill, and catfish. Like a farm field, a lake can sustain just so much biomass.