Get Updates! and Search
No RSS feeds have been linked to this section.











Entries in invasive species (219)


New York Legislation Reminds Anglers to Clean, Drain, And Dry

Giant salvinia on boat trailer in Texas. TPWD photo

New legislation in New York makes anglers and other boaters responsible for taking common-sense precautions to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species. That means that they should clean, drain, and dry their boaters and trailers to remove plant and animal matter before transport or launch.

“New York’s new law is the latest, but not the last,” said Gene Gilliland, National Conservation Director for B.A.S.S. “Texas and Arizona passed clean, drain, and dry laws a few years ago.

“It is said that there needs to be legislation to enforce common sense,” he continued. “Checking your boats for clinging plants or debris, cleaning it by removing materials or power washing after you’ve boated in contaminated waters, removing the plug to drain your boat’s bilge or livewell, and drying the boat thoroughly to prevent the spread of any sort of plants or critters should be automatic --- an unconscious habit --- for all boaters.

“The fact that it is not a habit results in laws that force the issue.”

Starting in November, offenders in New York waters will receive a written notice for a first violation, along with educational materials regarding invasive species. A fine of up to $150 will be issued for a second offense, up to $250 for a third offense, and no more than $1,000 for a fourth.

Additionally, the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) has adopted regulations that prohibit boats from launching or leaving agency access sites without taking these precautions. Also, several local municipalities and state organizations have adopted local laws to minimize the spread of invasives, including boat inspection and washing requirements.

In 2014, New York adopted its first mandatory inspection program for boat launches on Lake George.

DEC points out that invasives threatened both tourism and sport fishing by outcompeting native species for food and habitat. Additionally, they can spread diseases, and, once established, are nearly impossible to eradicate because they have few natural predators in their new environments. Nationwide, they annually cause about $120 billion in damage.

“As much as people don't like government regulation, the problem here is one of how easily a system can be contaminated,” Gilliland said.

“A single boat can be responsible for introducing invasive mussels or plants. If boaters do not police themselves, to protect water resources, states may take drastic measures, such as we've seen in California, where boats are banned altogether from some waters.”


Lionfish Are Malicious But Delicious

Can we eat enough lionfish to keep them from damaging native species and marine ecosystems? Probably not.

But it won’t hurt to try.

Last month, the first “Celebrity Chef Lionfish Challenge” was presented during the annual SeaWeb Seafood Summit, the world’s premier conference on sustainable seafood. Co-hosted by SeaWeb and National Marine Sanctuary Foundation (NMSF), the Challenge brought together seven top regional chefs to prepare their signature lionfish dishes.

Some of the recipes that they came up with include lionfish succotash, lionfish wreckdriver style, and lionfish with crawfish sauce piquant and creole cream cheese grits. Check out all of them here.

According to NMSF, “While visually stunning, the lionfish is an invasive species plaguing marine ecosystems in U.S. waters, particularly the southeast Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean.

“As conventional population reduction methods have proven unsuccessful, organizations are innovating. The National Marine Sanctuary Foundation  and SeaWeb hope a secret weapon – America’s chefs – will spread the word that lionfish are malicious but delicious.”

Lionfish were first confirmed in U.S. waters in the 1980s and, with few natural predators and a fast breeding cycle, their presence is now permanent. They have had significant impact in the Flower Garden Banks, Florida Keys, and Gray’s Reef national marine sanctuaries.

Reduction of the lionfish population is a priority throughout the ocean community and, among their many functions and services, the sanctuaries serve as sentinel sites for control efforts. NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries has just released its Lionfish Response Plan. At Flower Garden Banks, NMSF-funded expeditions have removed quantities of the predators and provided data used to improve population control techniques. 


Corps Suspects Anglers, Hunters of Spreading Hydrilla at Kerr lake

Kerr Lake hydrilla

A management plan for hydrilla control at Kerr Lake (Buggs Island) incorporates a “get tough” approach to those who intentionally introduce the fast-growing exotic plant. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is offering a $1,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and prosecution of violators.

That’s because rangers and biologists suspect that anglers and waterfowl hunters are intentionally spreading the invasive.

“It is a crime to knowingly or unknowingly spread noxious and invasive vegetation like hydrilla,” said Mike Woman, project manager for the reservoir on the Virginia-North Carolina border.

He added that the notion that introducing the plant is a good idea is “short-sighted.”

Yes, hydrilla attracts bass and ducks, but it rarely can be contained or controlled. It smothers native plants, as it diminishes oxygen levels and water quality with its biomass. Additionally, recent research has revealed that it can play host to an alga that is deadly to waterfowl and predatory birds that eat them, including eagles.

Hydrilla coverage in the 50,000-acre fishery increased by 230 acres to 1,116 in 2014, puzzling biologists. But then a Corps staffer happened upon internet blogs that extolled the benefits of hydrilla for anglers and hunters. That discovery prompted the agency to conclude that a small number of misguided sportsmen are spreading the plant.

In addition to pursuing these violators, the Corps also has incorporated public education, herbicide application, and sterile grass carp into its strategy.

With assistance from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and the North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, the agency stocked 13,320 carp during 2013. Another 4,200 were added in 2014, to make up for an estimated 30 percent mortality with the initial stocking and to address the increase in hydrilla.

The Corps also intends to plant colonies of native, beneficial plants. They will be started in cages to prevent predation by carp and turtles.

(This article appeared originally in B.A.S.S. Times.)


Cue the 'Jaws' Theme and Take a Look at What These Florida Anglers Caught

Florida great white shark

Thinking of heading down to Florida to escape this never-ending winter? Maybe do a little sunning and swimming at the beach?

I’d confine my swimming to daylight hours, and, even then, I might think twice about doing it. That’s because a nearly 10-foot great white and a nearly 11-foot mako shark were caught from shores of northern Florida during the past two weeks.

Appropriately enough, the mako was caught from the pier at Navarre Beach, where much of “Jaws 2” was filmed during the 1970s. The great white came from the surf off Panama City Beach to the east.

And, oh yeah, Joey Polk and his cousins caught an even larger mako at Navarre back in April.

The trio who caught the great white tagged and released it. Polk usually does as well with the sharks he catches.

"We're definitely more on the conservation side of everything," Gabriel Smeby said. "We use big tackle and mainly circle hooks so it puts as little stress on the fish as possible and we can get a tag in them and get them on their way.

"I would say we probably release between 95 and 98 percent of all the sharks we catch."

Florida mako shark

Polk usually releases his sharks as well. But scientists wanted a closer look at a large mako. Anglers kept the meat, while researchers took the backbone, organs, and stomach contents.

No bathers or boats were found inside.

Bighorn River northern pike

Meanwhile, up in Montana . . .

A  Kansas City man caught a 38-inch, 16-pound northern pike while fly fishing for trout on the Bighorn River.

Northern pike are rare for that stretch of the river, especially ones that big. For about 30 miles below Yellowtail Dam - the stretch where the pike was caught - the Bighorn flows cool and clear, making it a productive and popular trout fishery, well-known around the world for rainbows and brown.

How did the non-native pike get in the river? Learn more here.


Mussels Could Be Contributing to Toxic Algae Blooms

Proposed reductions in phosphorous runoff from agricultural lands might not be enough to counter Lake Erie’s increasing susceptibility to toxic algae blooms, according to University of Michigan researchers.

"Our results suggest that current phosphorus loading targets will be insufficient for reducing the intensity of cyanobacteria blooms to desired levels, so long as the lake remains in a heightened state of bloom susceptibility," said lead author Daniel Obenour of the university’s Water Center.

That “heightened state” led to nearly half a million Ohio and Michigan residents being deprived of drinking water for several days in early August because of a cyanobacteria bloom containing the toxin microsystin.

The problem seems to be that the blooms are becoming more sensitive to phosphorus, according to the scientists.

But what has caused this and the corresponding increase in size of cyanobacteria blooms since the mid 1990s? That’s not so easy to explain.

Computer modeling revealed that a special form of phosphorus, DRP (dissolved reactive phosphorus) is more readily absorbed by algae, but it did not explain increased bloom susceptibility. Also, late-summer surface water temperatures did not increase enough to exacerbate the problem.

Exotic quagga and zebra mussels, however, could be a factor. The filter-feeding shellfish gorge on many species of phytoplankton, but avoid those that produce toxins. In other words, the latter now have less competition for nutrients, including phosphorus.

"We tested to see if the increase in the DRP fraction could be the cause, and it did not pass the test. It also does not look like water temperature is driving the increased susceptibility,” said Don Scavia, co-author and aquatic ecologist. “We're thinking it may have been the increase in mussels.

"As long as the lake remains in this heightened state of susceptibility, this problem is likely to persist,” he added. “That means we need to better understand what is driving the increased susceptibility and whether it can be controlled, or if deeper phosphorus reductions are needed.”